The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) unites governments and experts to strengthen, advance, and promote Holocaust education, research, and remembrance and to uphold the commitments of the 2000 Stockholm Declaration. This declaration, the result of a convocation of 46 governments, affirms:
- The horrific magnitude of the Holocaust.
- The indelible scar on the foundations of civilization and the permanent effect on our understanding of humanity.
- The solemn responsibility of upholding the truth of the Holocaust against those who deny it.
- The shared commitment to Holocaust education, research, and remembrance.
- The dedication to honoring the victims of the Holocaust and humanity’s aspiration for mutual justice and understanding.
IHRA published its definition of antisemitism in 2005 which was then adopted in 2015-2016 by the European Parliament, European Council, and the European Union. It has since been adopted or endorsed by UN member states, international organizations, the European Union, and the United States State Department. The IHRA working definition is not legally binding. It provides a framework for governments and institutions to identify the many manifestations of antisemitism.
Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews.
Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.
Manifestations might include the targeting of the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity. However, criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic. Antisemitism frequently charges Jews with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for “why things go wrong.” It is expressed in speech, writing, visual forms and action, and employs sinister stereotypes and negative character traits.
Contemporary examples of antisemitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include, but are not limited to:
- Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion.
- Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or stereotypical allegations about Jews as such or the power of Jews as collective — such as, especially but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, economy, government or other societal institutions.
- Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person or group, or even for acts committed by non-Jews.
- Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g., gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust).
- Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.
- Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews worldwide, than to the interests of their own nations.
- Denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g., by claiming that the existence of a State of Israel is a racist endeavor.
- Applying double standards by requiring a behavior of Israel not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation.
- Using the symbols and images associated with classic antisemitism (e.g., claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood libel) to characterize Israel or Israelis.
- Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis.
- Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the State of Israel.